Configuring NetApp Volume Encryption

NetApp Volume Encryption (NVE) is a software-based technology for encrypting data at rest one volume at a time. An encryption key accessible only to the storage system ensures that volume data cannot be read if the underlying device is repurposed, returned, misplaced, or stolen.

Understanding NVE

Both data, including Snapshot copies, and metadata are encrypted. Access to the data is given by a unique XTS-AES-256 key, one per volume. An external key management server or Onboard Key Manager serves keys to nodes:

Starting with ONTAP 9.7, aggregate and volume encryption is enabled by default if you have a volume encryption (VE) license and use an onboard or external key manager. Whenever an external or onboard key manager is configured there is a change in how data at rest encryption is configured for brand new aggregates and brand new volumes. Brand new aggregates will have NetApp Aggregate Encryption (NAE) enabled by default. Brand new volumes that are not part of an NAE aggregate will have NetApp Volume Encryption (NVE) enabled by default. If a data storage virtual machine (SVM) is configured with its own key-manager using multi-tenant key management in an aggregate with NAE, then the volume created for that SVM is automatically configured with NVE.

You can enable encryption on a new or existing volume. NVE supports the full range of storage efficiency features, including deduplication and compression.

Note: If you are using SnapLock, you can enable encryption only on new, empty SnapLock volumes. You cannot enable encryption on an existing SnapLock volume.

You can use NVE on any type of aggregate (HDD, SSD, hybrid, array LUN), with any RAID type, and in any supported ONTAP implementation, including ONTAP Select. You can also use NVE with hardware-based encryption to “double encrypt” data on self-encrypting drives.

Note: AFF A220, AFF A800, FAS2720, FAS2750, and later systems store core dumps on their boot device. When NVE is enabled on these systems, the core dump is also encrypted.

Aggregate-level encryption

Ordinarily, every encrypted volume is assigned a unique key. When the volume is deleted, the key is deleted with it.

Starting with ONTAP 9.6, you can use NetApp Aggregate Encryption (NAE) to assign keys to the containing aggregate for the volumes to be encrypted. When an encrypted volume is deleted, the keys for the aggregate are preserved. The keys are deleted only after the last encrypted volume in the aggregate is deleted.

You must use aggregate-level encryption if you plan to perform inline or background aggregate-level deduplication. Aggregate-level deduplication is otherwise not supported by NVE.

Starting with ONTAP 9.7, aggregate and volume encryption is enabled by default if you have a volume encryption (VE) license and use an onboard or external key manager.

NVE and NAE volumes can coexist on the same aggregate. Volumes encrypted under aggregate-level encryption are NAE volumes by default. You can override the default when you encrypt the volume.

You can use the volume move command to convert an NVE volume to an NAE volume, and vice versa. You can replicate an NAE volume to an NVE volume.

When to use external key management servers

Although it is less expensive and typically more convenient to use the onboard key manager, you should set up KMIP servers if any of the following are true:

Scope of external key management

The scope of external key management determines whether key management servers secure all the SVMs in the cluster or selected SVMs only:

You can use both scopes in the same cluster. If key management servers have been configured for an SVM, ONTAP uses only those servers to secure keys. Otherwise, ONTAP secures keys with the key management servers configured for the cluster.

Support details

The following table shows NVE support details:

Resource or feature Support details
Platforms AES-NI offload capability required. See the Hardware Universe (HWU) to verify that NVE and NAE are supported for your platform.
Encryption Starting ONTAP 9.7, newly created aggregates and volumes are encrypted by default when you add a volume encryption (VE) and have an onboard or external key manager configured.

If you need to create an unencrypted aggregate, use the following command: storage aggregate create -encrypt-with-aggr-key false

If you need to create a plain text volume, use the following command: volume create -encrypt false

Encryption is not enabled by default when:
  • VE is not configured
  • Key manager is not configured
  • Platform or software does not support encryption
  • Hardware encryption is enabled
ONTAP All ONTAP implementations. Support for ONTAP Cloud is available in ONTAP 9.5 and later.
Devices HDD, SSD, hybrid, array LUN.
Volumes Data volumes, existing root volumes, and MetroCluster metadata volumes. You cannot encrypt data on an SVM root volume.
Aggregate-level encryption Starting with ONTAP 9.6, NVE supports aggregate-level encryption (NAE):
  • You must use aggregate-level encryption if you plan to perform inline or background aggregate-level deduplication.
  • You cannot rekey an aggregate-level encryption volume.
  • Secure-purge is not supported on aggregate-level encryption volumes.
  • In addition to data volumes, NAE supports encryption of SVM root volumes and the MetroCluster metadata volume. NAE does not support encryption of the root volume.
SVM scope Starting with ONTAP 9.6, NVE supports SVM scope for external key management only, not for Onboard Key Manager. MetroCluster is not supported.
Storage efficiency Deduplication, compression, compaction, FlexClone. Clones use the same key as the parent, even after splitting the clone from the parent. You are warned to rekey the split clone.
  • For volume replication, the destination volume must have been enabled for encryption. Encryption can be configured for the source and unconfigured for the destination, and vice versa.
  • For SVM replication, the destination volume is automatically encrypted, unless the destination does not contain a node that supports volume encryption, in which case replication succeeds, but the destination volume is not encrypted.
  • For MetroCluster configurations, each cluster pulls external key management keys from its configured key servers. OKM keys are replicated to the partner site by the configuration replication service.
Compliance Starting with ONTAP 9.2, SnapLock is supported in both Compliance and Enterprise modes, for new volumes only. You cannot enable encryption on an existing SnapLock volume.
FlexGroups Starting with ONTAP 9.2, FlexGroups are supported. Destination aggregates must be of the same type as source aggregates, either volume-level or aggregate-level. Starting with ONTAP 9.5, in-place rekey of FlexGroup volumes is supported.
7-Mode transition Starting with 7-Mode Transition Tool 3.3, you can use the 7-Mode Transition Tool CLI to perform copy-based transition to NVE-enabled destination volumes on the clustered system.