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Service Levels in Keystone

Contributors netapp-manini netapp-aruldeepa

Keystone STaaS offers data storage capacity at pre-defined performance service levels (service levels) on a subscription basis. Each volume managed by the Keystone services is associated with a service level.

A subscription can have multiple rate plans and each rate plan corresponds to a service level. Each rate plan has a committed capacity per service level.

Each service level is defined by its I/O density, that is IOPS/TiB/volume. This is the ratio of performance (input/output operations per second [IOPS]) and used storage capacity (TiB) which is IOPS/TiB at average latency per volume.

You select service levels based on your storage environment, and storage and consumption needs. The base service levels are available for you by default. Specific service levels are additionally available, if you have opted for add-on services. For example, for the advanced data protection add-on service, the Advanced Data-Protect service level is assigned to your subscription.

Tip A detailed service description for NetApp Keystone STaaS service levels is available here.

The base service levels for the supported storage types, file, block, object, and cloud services are described in the following sections:

Service levels for file and block storage

Supported protocols: NFS, CIFS, iSCSI, and FC

Service level






Sample workload types

Analytics, databases, mission-critical apps

VDI, VSI, software development

OLTP, OLAP, containers, software development

File shares, web servers


Maximum IOPS/logical TiBs stored per volume






Maximum IOPS/logical TiBs allocated per volume






Maximum MBps/logical TiBs stored per volume @ 32K B/S






Target 90th percentile latency

<1 ms

<2 ms

<4 ms

<4 ms

<17 ms

Block size


More on service levels for file and block storage

The base service level metrics depend on the following conditions:

  • The service levels for file and block storage support ONTAP 9.7 and later.

  • IOPS/TiB/volume, MBps/TiB/volume, and latency values for service levels are based on the amount of data stored in the volume, 32KB block size, and a random combination of 70% read and 30% write IO operations.

  • Actual IOPS/TiB/volume and MBps/TiB/volume may vary based on the actual or assumed block size, system workload concurrency, or input-output operations.

  • Latency does not include the following:

    • application or host latency

    • customer network latency to or from the controller ports

    • overheads associated with the data transfer to the object store in case of FabricPool

    • latency automatically applied by QoS to keep IO within service level maximums

  • Latency values are not applicable to MetroCluster write operations. These write operations are dependent on the distance of remote systems.

  • If one or more volumes on a storage system do not have an AQoS policy assigned, then these volumes are considered as non-compliant volumes, and no target service levels are applicable for those systems.

  • Expected IOPS is targeted for FabricPool only if the tiering policy is set to "none" and no blocks are in the cloud. Expected IOPS is targeted for volumes that are not in a SnapMirror synchronous relationship.

  • Workload IO operations need to be balanced across all deployed controllers, as determined by the Keystone order.

Object storage

Supported protocol: S3

Service level


Workload type

Media repository, archiving

Maximum IOPS/logical TiB stored per volume


Maximum MBps/logical TiB stored per volume


Average Latency


Note Latency does not include overheads associated with data transfer to the object store in case of FabricPool storage.

Cloud storage

Supported protocol: NFS, CIFS, iSCSI, and S3 (AWS and Azure only)

Service level

Cloud Volumes ONTAP®

Workload type

Disaster Recovery, software development/testing, business apps

Maximum IOPS/logical TiB stored per volume


Maximum MBps/logical TiB stored per volume


Average Latency


  • Cloud native services, such as compute, storage, networking, are invoiced by cloud providers.

  • These services are dependent on cloud storage and compute characteristics.